Unless these immigration effects are taken into consideration by deputy district attorneys in appropriate circumstances, some defendants will be exposed to direct consequences that were not intended by the prosecutor in light of the facts and significance of the criminal offense and the background and history of the defendant. Consideration of the impact of consequences, particularly in the context of immigration consequences, is consistent with the duty of all prosecutors to pursue justice by prosecuting the guilty, protecting the innocent, and ensuring that the punishment fits the crime.
The unfortunate reality is that many countries marginalize women as second-class citizens. Sometimes this occurs through laws that grant men and women different rights, and in other instances religion or long-established cultural traditions relegate women to inferior social statuses. Where a society institutionalizes laws that permit violence against women or holds women and men in unequal standing, there is no reason why gender or sex should not align with the definition of a “refugee” and be treated as tantamount to the broad, protected classes of race, religion, and political opinion.